This article provides an up-to-date survey of hybrid fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks that leverage on the respective strengths of optical and wireless. A definitive objective of Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) systems is the meeting of different optical and wireless innovations under a solitary base keeping in mind the end. Survey Smoothly Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Accessing Wireless Networks: Convergence and Challenges. Naseer Hwaidi Alkhazaali, Raed Abduljabbar Aljiznawi.
|Genre:||Health and Food|
|Published (Last):||19 September 2018|
|PDF File Size:||4.8 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||14.55 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Otherwise, excess traffic needs to be dropped. Especially for event-driven M2M communications, where a large number of devices become activated within a short period of time, traffic-aware networkw MAC protocols were shown to provide superior delay performance and robustness [ ].
The obtained measurements demonstrated that the MMSE precoding provides a large throughput gain compared to conventional noncooperative precoding.
According to recent market data by Fuber-wireless Research, the number of fixed broadband subscribers will rise to million by the end ofof which million will subscribe to services delivered via fiber. According to [ 23 ], the following four architectures can be used.
Survey on Integrated Fiber-Wireless ( FiWi ) Access Network Architectures – Semantic Scholar
To enable loss-free transport of high-priority traffic across the OBS core network, each OBS network node is assigned a number of local wavelength channels that are dedicated to the transmission of high-priority traffic.
To better understand the rationale behind the vision of FiWi access networks, we first describe related research topics and then define FiWi access networks as a new research area in the following. Netorks 2 describes related research topics and defines FiWi access networks as a new research area.
The current global crisis is far from unexpected but rather represents a recurrent historical event that is typical for capitalist economies.
Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey
Furthermore, we discuss service, application, business, and operation related aspects, which motivate access technology to move into a substantially different direction in the long run than continued capacity provisioning. Fiber-wireless FiWi access networks: This hybrid Fibdr-wireless architecture combines optical star and ring networks [ 26 ]. View at Scopus N. The presented results show that the greedy algorithm performs better for deterministic rather than random ONU placement.
All of the discussed wireless routing algorithms aim at finding the optimal path through a wireless mesh front-end by meeting one or more objectives. An interesting acess to solve this problem is the use of an RoF network installed along the rail tracks in combination with the so-called moving cell concept [ 20 ]. View at Scopus M.
Among other mobility-based UE distribution techniques, traffic steering represents a promising approach for both load balancing and minimization of unnecessary handovers in HetNets [ 93 ]. The objective of the proposed energy-aware routing algorithm is to use already existent paths and put the other FiWi network segments asleep.
Recently, the integration of wireless and fiber optic sensors into FiWi access networks has begun to receive increasing attention. Note that dependability has many facets and includes several important system properties such as reliability, availability, survivability, and safety.
However, it is important to note that the performance of the integrated resource management framework largely depends sjrvey the network size and traffic profile. A fibdr-wireless analytical framework for the throughput-delay performance evaluation of a wide range of FiWi network routing algorithms was developed in [ 6970 ], taking emerging IEEE In the WMN, each mesh node has two radios with several orthogonal channels per radio. As we will see shortly, different challenges were addressed such as routing and wireless channel assignment, which can be performed completely either in the wireless domain by the base station BS or access point APor by an optical network element, for example, CO or optical line terminal OLT.
Networkd, the OLT maintains two watermarks for the traffic load at each ONU, one low watermark and one high watermark. More precisely, links with higher predicted delays are given higher weights and vice versa. In the downstream direction, the central hub of GROW-Net fiwo a tunable laser, which can reach different optical terminals by tuning the laser to the respective wavelength channel supported by the intended optical terminal.
Given a path of hops, for each hop a hop offset is added to the path cost; that is, is added to the original cost of the path. When all ONUs have equal load, traffic from wireless mesh source nodes tends to go toward the closest gateway using fewer wireless hops, which translates into shorter delays. View at Google Scholar R. Citation Statistics Citations 0 10 20 30 ’10 ’12 ’14 ’16 ‘ A variety of advanced survivability techniques for PONs and FiWi access networks were investigated in [ 7172 ].
In the downlink, pilots and data are transmitted to the mobile terminals, whereas the uplink is used to feed channel state information from the mobile terminals back to the CU to adapt the precoding filter.
However, inserting an optical distribution system in wireless networks may have neetworks major impact on the performance of medium access control MAC protocols [ 15 ].
Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Broadband Access Networks in an Age of Convergence: Past, Present, and Future
We are currently witnessing a strong worldwide deployment of deep fiber access solutions to push optical fiber closer to individual homes and businesses fiber-wirsless to help realize FTTx networks, whereby x denotes the discontinuity between optical fiber and some other transmission medium [ 3 ]. Consequently, the CO must be able to assign channels quickly and efficiently by using one or more wavelength channels on the fiber ring to accommodate multiple services fii as WLAN and cellular radio network.
A variety of next-generation PON technologies are currently investigated to enable short-term evolutionary and long-term revolutionary upgrades of coexistent Gigabit-class TDM PONs [ 28 ].