The mediastinum is the most common extragonadal location. In adults, approximately % of mediastinal tumors are germ cell tumors;. 20% of mediastinal tumors and cysts; Typically divided into seminomas versus nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (teratomas [mature or. Mediastinal germ cell tumors are tumors that derive from germ cell rest remnants in the mediastinum. They most commonly occur in the gonad but occasionally.
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However, mediastjnum between the genetic alterations and immunoprofiles of mediastinal and testicular seminomas have been reported, raising the question of whether techniques that are useful in the diagnosis of gonadal seminoma are applicable to its mediastinal counterpart.
The nonteratomatous germinal neoplasms have the same morphologic features, approximate distribution, and prognosis as the gonadal counterparts. Germinoma with multilocular thymic cyst. Sarcoma Lymphoma Immature teratoma Melanoma. The intense staining pattern of OCT4 and the high sensitivity of FISH make them superior to other auxiliary diagnostic utilities for detecting seminoma. Germinoma with yolk sac component.
Epidemiology Usually men in 20s with elevated hCG and gynecomastia, impotence Prognostic factors Poor prognosis Case reports 13 year old boy with shortness of breath, chest pain, fever, irritable cough and weight loss Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; Click here for information on linking to our website or using our content or images. This page was last edited on 2 Augustat In these cases, the mediastinal germ cell tumor develops before or concomitantly with but not after acute megakaryoblastic leukemia.
The majority of neoplasms are mature cystic teratomas that are incidentally discovered on imaging studies of the thorax. May have aggressive behavior if not limited to mediastinum at diagnosis Cancer ; Germinoma-seminoma is the most frequent nonteratomatous malignant germ cell tumor. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Mesothelioma Malignant solitary fibrous tumor.
Usually males ages 20 – 49 years, similar to gonadal tumors Cancer ; Syndromes associated with mediastinal germ cell tumors include Hematologic Neoplasia and Klinefelter’s syndrome. Fetus in fetu Dermoid cyst Struma ovarii Strumal carcinoid Trophoblastic neoplasm: Unencapsulated, homogenous fleshy mass with indistinct boundaries and invasion of adjacent structures, hemorrhage or necrosis.
mediastinal germinoma – – Human pathology
Monday 23 January Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors of various histologies were first described as a clinical entity approximately 50 years ago.
Thymic seminoma with marked cystic changes, superior mediastinum. Info – Admin Resources germonoma pathology Technical section. It should be remembered that mediastinal lymph nodes are metastatic sites for primary gonadal germ cell tumors, so that a thorough clinical evaluation is necessary to exclude the latter possibility.
Pathology by systems F. Page views in to date: Case report and review of the literature”.
Mediastinal germ cell tumor
Regardless of the pathologic subtype, the mediastinal germ cell tumors have a predilection for patients in germimoma first three decades of life. Sign up for our Email Newsletters. Histologic grading of pure teratomas has prognostic significance in those neoplasms that are diagnosed in adolescents and young adults; immature teratomas in the latter patients pursue an aggressive clinical course.
This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. The treatment for mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors should follow guidelines for poor-prognosis testicular cancer. Click here for patient related inquiries. Germ cell tumor – mixed. Mediastinnum needle aspiration biopsy can establish diagnosis with high degree of accuracy Am J Clin Pathol ; Mediastinal germ cell tumors are tumors greminoma derive from germ cell rest remnants in the mediastinum.
Others hypothesize a widespread distribution of germ cells to multiple sites during normal embryogenesis, with these cells conveying genetic information or providing regulatory functions at somatic sites. Gestational trophoblastic disease Hydatidiform mole Choriocarcinoma Placental site trophoblastic tumor Polyembryoma Gonadoblastoma.
The diagnosis of a mediastinal germ cell tumor should be considered in all young males with a mediastinal mass. New author database being installed, click here for details.
Excised tumor with rib. Views Read Edit View history. Squamous-cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma Large-cell lung carcinoma Rhabdoid carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma Carcinoid Salivary gland—like carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Papillary adenocarcinoma Giant-cell carcinoma.
Among the malignant germ cell tumors, males are affected far more commonly than females, but the male to female ratio is approximately equal among mature cystic teratomas. Am J Surg Pathol. Pancoast tumor Solitary pulmonary nodule Central mediastnum Peripheral lung Bronchial leiomyoma.
The anterior mediastinum is the most common primary extragonadal site for germinal neoplasms in adults and is second to the sacrococcygeal region for pathologially comparable tumors in children.
Seminomas grow relatively slowly and can become very large before causing symptoms. Non-small-cell lung carcinoma Squamous-cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma Large-cell lung carcinoma Rhabdoid carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma Carcinoid Salivary gland—like carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Papillary adenocarcinoma Giant-cell carcinoma.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med. Some investigators suggest that this distribution arises as a consequence of abnormal migration of germ cells during embryogenesis. Retrieved from ” https: In several of these cases, the genetic aberrations in the malignant megakaryoblasts were similar to those in the malignant mediastianl germ cells. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Pure mediastinal seminomas are curable in the large majority of patients, even when metastatic at the time of diagnosis.
Patients with small tumors usually asymptomatic that appear resectable usually undergo thoracotomy and attempted complete resection followed by chemotherapy.