A grammar of the Hurrian language. Front Cover. Frederic William Bush. Brandeis University., – Hurrian language – pages. Dennis R. M. Campbell , Mood and Modality in Hurrian, , Frederic W. Bush , A Grammar of the Hurrian Language, , , grammar · hh. Hurrian language, extinct language spoken from the last centuries of the 3rd millennium bce until at least the latter years of the Hittite empire (c. –c.
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Atom, smallest unit into which matter can be divided without the release of electrically charged particles. There is no difference between the form for transitive and intransitive verbs, there being agreement with the subject of the sentence. Historical background of ancient Anatolia In history of Mesopotamia: In certain phonological environments, these endings can vary. After these endings come the vowel of transitivity.
SA indicates morphemes added through Suffixaufnahmedescribed below. The resulting “morpheme chain” is as follows: As with the noun, not all of these elements must be present in each verb form, and indeed some of them are mutually incompatible.
Since the late s, significant progress was made due to the discovery of a Hurrian-Hittite bilingual, edited by E. Contact our editors with your feedback. This is hundreds of years after the last Hurrian documents disappear, but Urartian is closer to Old Hurrian, rather than the later version of the language, so it is not a descendent of Hurrian.
Some scholars, such as I. For the subject of a transitive verb, however, the ergative case is used. No Hurrian texts are attested from the first millennium BC unless considering Urartian a late Hurrian dialectbut scattered loanwords persist in Assyrian, such as the goddess Savuska mentioned by Sargon II. The verb comes at the end of the clause, and there seems to have been a rich inventory of different moods for the verb, not all well understood.
Hurrian language |
The Mitanni introduced some linguistic terms of Indo-Aryan origin, dealing for example with horse training, and gods from the Vedic Indian pantheon, but the language remained Hurrian. Only a few sentence-initial particles are attested. The marker -t- in position 4 may indicate intransitivity in non-present tenses.
In the third person, when the suffix -wa occurs before the subject marker, it can be replaced by -maalso expressing the negative: In the absolutive singular, Suffixaufnahme would be meaningless, as the case and number are unmarked. It is irrelevant to the meaning of the sentence to which word in the sentence the enclitic pronoun is attached, so it is often attached either to the first phrase or to the verb.
All adpositions can themselves generally be in the allative, rarely in the dative or in the “e-case”. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help: Sumerian, and Hurrian, and seven different scripts were used in Ugarit in this period: To express a possibility, the potential form must be used. All Hurrian nouns end in a vowel. Nonetheless, it is clear that these represent dialects of one language.
The relative pronouns iya and iye may be a loan from the Indo-Aryan language of the Mitanni people who had lived in the region before the Hurrians; cf.
Speisertried to equate Hurrians and ” Subarians “. Other Hurrian texts have been found in the cities of Urkish Mardin region, c. The f of the genitive and dative endings merges with a preceding p or t giving pp and tt respectively, e.
Further information on the Hurrians is given on the Wikipedia website. The direct object and intransitive subject, when they are not represented by an independent noun, are expressed through the use of clitics, or pronouns see below.
For example case markers more than one may be attached to a noun, and various grammatical markers are attached to a verb. All cardinal numbers end in a vowel, which drops when an enclitic is attached. However, the latter should not…. After the derivational suffix come those marking tense. Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages Language articles with unreferenced extinction date Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers.
It is also only found in the third person, and only with transitive verbs. There is no voiced consonant with an unvoiced counterpart, nor vice versa. There are also differences in morphology, some of which are mentioned in the course of the exposition below. Its ending is -iliaand this participle can undergo Suffixaufnahme. Short consonants are written Moreover, suffixes can be added to the verb stem that modify its meaning, including valency -changing morphemes such as -an n — causative-ant applicative and -ukar reciprocative.
In Hurrian, the function of the so-called ” article ” is not entirely clear, inasmuch as its use does not seem to resemble closely a typical definite article. Ancient Near East portal.
The Hurrian of hurriah Mitanni letter differs significantly from that used in the texts at Hattusha and other Hittite centres, as well as from earlier Hurrian texts from various locations. The meanings of many such suffixes have yet to be decoded.
They are attached to nouns or nominalised verbs. In this process, the dependent modifiers of a noun share the noun’s case suffixes.
By the grammxr Bronze Age, Hurrian seems to have become extinct, except perhaps for remote mountainous areas east of the upper Tigris. Retrieved from ” https: Igor Diakonoff cites the suffix as -ido-but also located it before the slot of the transitivity vowel -o- — an interpretation which is also justified by the place of the corresponding suffix in the related Urartian language.